The first contacts between Russia and Siam (as Thailand was formerly known) are dated back to February 19, 1863 (new style calendar) when two Russian ships "Gaydamak" and "Novik" shored at the Bangkok Port on the Chao Raya River. In 1876-77 N.Miklukho-Maklay visited Thailand during his voyage to the countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
In the end of XIX century Siam considered Russia as an ally which can render assistance in the Siamese struggle for preserving independence against the colonial expansion of European Powers. The relations between the two countries received substantial progress. In 1882 the Russian naval squadron under the command of Rear Admiral A.B.Aslambekov came to Siam on the occasion of the Chakri Dynasty Centennial Celebration. In 1888 Russian musician P.Schurovskiy composed the National anthem of Siam, which was used up to 1932, and became afterwards the Royal Anthem of Thailand. Russian Crown Prince Nikholas visited Bangkok in 1891. The same year Siamese Prince Damrong came to Livadia (Crimea) where he was given an audience by the Russian Emperor Alexander III. In 1896 Siamese Prince Chira was a guest at the Coronation Ceremony of Emperor Nikholas II.
During the visit of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) to Russia on July 2-10, 1897 the diplomatic relations between Russia and Siam were formalised. On December 4, 1897 Mr. Alexander Olarovsky was appointed as Charge d'Affaires and Consul-General of Russia to Siam. On April 14, 1898 the Russian Consulate-General was opened in Bangkok. Later it was upgraded into the Mission which operated till 1917. On June 23, 1899 the Russian-Siamese Declaration of Jurisdiction, Trade and Navigation was signed in Bangkok. Regarding the friendly relations and the development of cultural exchange Siamese Royal Guards wore the uniform of Russian Guards up to the 1970-s, and some elements of this uniform may be seen in their garments today.
At the end of XIX - beginning of XX centuries a number of Members of the Thai Royal Family and state officials visited Russia. Many young Thai aristocrats received education in St. Petersburg and Moscow. The son of King Chulalongkorn - H.R.H. Prince Chakrabongse stayed in Russia for several years, studied at the Corps des Pages and General Staff Academy, served in the Russian Army. In 1906 he married Ekaterina Desnitskaya.
A short pause in the bilateral relations appeared after 1917. The diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Thailand were established on March 12, 1941. In 1947 the two sides signed the Agreement on the Exchange of Diplomatic Missions and a year later the Russian Embassy started to function in the Thai capital. During the Cold War the relations between the two countries developed ambivalently. Until the end of the 70-s there were neither conflicts nor any substantial progress. The new impetus to the bilateral relations was given by the first official visit of Mr. Kriangsak Chamanan, Prime-Minister of Thailand, to the Soviet Union in 1979. During this visit the Soviet-Thai Friendship Society was established.
Since the mid 80-s under the influence of positive changes on the international arena the bilateral relations enjoyed significant rise. In 1987 the first exchange of the visits by the Foreign Ministers took place. In May 1988 General Prem Tinsulanonda, Prime Minister of Thailand, paid an official visit to Moscow. In February 1990 Mr. Nikolay I. Ryzhkov, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, paid an official visit to Bangkok.
On December 28, 1991 the Royal Thai Government recognised the Russian Federation as a sovereign state and reconfirmed its intention to develop friendly and mutually beneficial relations.
In October 2003 Russian President Vladimir V. Putin paid a State visit to the Kingdom of Thailand.
In July 2007 Her Majesty Queen Sirikit of Thailand paid a State visit to the Russian Federation on behalf of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand.
In April 2015 Russian Prime Minister Dmitry A. Medvedev paid an Official visit to the Kingdom of Thailand.