The first contacts between Russia and Siam date back to February 19, 1863 when two Russian ships "Gaydamak" and "Novik" shored at the Bangkok Port on the Chao Raya River. In 1876-77 N.Miklukho-Maklay visited Thailand during his voyage to the countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
In the end of XIX century Siam considered Russia as an ally capable of rendering its assistance in the Siamese struggle for preserving independence against the colonial expansion of European Powers. The relations between the two countries received substantial progress. In 1882 the Russian naval squadron under the command of Rear Admiral A.B.Aslambekov came to Siam on the occasion of the Chakri Dynasty Centennial Celebration. In 1888 Russian musician P.Schurovskiy composed the National Anthem of Siam, which was used up to 1932, and became afterwards the Royal Anthem of Thailand. H.R.H. Russian Crown Prince Nikholas visited Bangkok in 1891. The same year H.R.H. Siamese Prince Damrong came to Livadia (Crimea) where he was given an audience by H.M. Russian Emperor Alexander III. In 1896 H.R.H. Siamese Prince Chira was a guest at the Coronation Ceremony of H.M. Emperor Nikholas II.
During the Royal visit of H.M. King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) to Russia on July 2-10, 1897 the diplomatic relations between Russia and Siam were formalized. On December 4, 1897 Mr. Alexander Olarovsky was appointed as Charge d'Affaires and Consul-General of Russia to Siam. On April 14, 1898 the Russian Consulate-General was opened in Bangkok. Later it was upgraded into the Mission which operated till 1917.
On June 23, 1899 the Russian-Siamese Declaration of Jurisdiction, Trade and Navigation was signed in Bangkok. Given the friendly relations and the development of cultural exchanges Siamese Royal Guards wore the uniform of Russian Guards up to the 1970-s. Some elements of that uniform may be seen in their garments today.
At the end of XIX - beginning of XX centuries a number of the Thai Royal Family Members and state officials visited Russia. Many young Thai aristocrats received education in St. Petersburg and Moscow. The son of H.M. King Chulalongkorn - H.R.H. Prince Chakrabongse stayed in Russia for several years, studied at the Corps des Pages and General Staff Academy, served in the Russian Army. In 1906 he married Russian citizen Ms. Ekaterina Desnitskaya.
A pause in the bilateral relations emerged after 1917. The diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Thailand were established on March 12, 1941. In 1947 the two sides signed the Agreement on the Exchange of Diplomatic Missions and a year later the Russian Embassy started functioning in the Thai capital. During the Cold War the relations between the two countries developed ambivalently. Until the end of the 70-s there were neither conflicts nor any substantial progress.
The new impetus to the bilateral relations was given by the first official visit of Mr. Kriangsak Chamanan, Prime-Minister of Thailand to the Soviet Union in 1979. During that visit the Soviet-Thai Friendship Society was established.
Since the mid 80-s under the influence of positive changes on the international arena the bilateral relations have been enjoying significant rise. In 1987 the first exchange of visits by the Foreign Ministers took place. In May 1988 General Prem Tinsulanonda, Prime Minister of Thailand, paid an official visit to Moscow. In February 1990 Mr. Nikolay Ryzhkov, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, paid an official visit to Bangkok.
On December 28, 1991 the Royal Thai Government recognized the Russian Federation as a sovereign state and reconfirmed its intention to develop friendly and mutually beneficial relations with it.
In October 2003 Russian President H.E. Mr. Vladimir Putin paid a State visit to the Kingdom of Thailand.
In July 2007 H.M. Queen Sirikit of Thailand paid a State visit to the Russian Federation on behalf of H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand.
Prime Minister of Thailand H.E. Mr. Thaksin Shinavatra visited Russia in 2002 and 2006. His sister, Prime Minister of Thailand H.E. Mrs. Yingluck Shinavatra met H.E. Mr. Vladimir Putin, President of the Russian Federation on the sidelines of APEC Leaders Week in Vladivostok (Russia) on September 8, 2012.
On November 12, 2014 the meeting between H.E. Mr. Dmitry Medvedev, Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and H.E. Gen. Prayuth Chan-o-cha was held on the sidelines of the East Asian Summit in Naypyidaw (Myanmar). On April 7-8, 2015, H.E. Mr. Dmitry Medvedev paid an official visit to Thailand. On November 18, 2015 the two heads of governments met in Manila on the sidelines of the APEC Summit.
In May 2016 H.E. Gen. Prayuth Chan-o-cha paid an official visit to Russia where he had meetings with H.E. Mr. Vladimir Putin and H.E. Mr. Dmitry Medvedev. On September 5, 2017 H.E. Gen. Prayuth Chan-o-cha had a meeting with H.E. Mr. Vladimir Putin on the sidelines of BRICS Summit in Xiamen, China.
On November 14, 2018 H.E. Mr. Vladimir Putin had talks with H.E. Gen. Prayuth Chan-o-cha on the sidelines of the ASEAN-Russia Summit in Singapore.